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TOEFL Tip #210: Paraphrasing Out Of Order Is Easier

by Strictly English TOEFL Tutors on June 29, 2013

As we’ve noted before, paraphrasing is an essential skill on the TOEFL exam. You need to be able to rephrase ideas you read and hear on the exam to avoid repetition and to demonstrate your mastery of English.

Today’s post focuses on word order when you are paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is not only about replacing one word with another in the same sentence structure. Good paraphrasing preserves the meaning of the sentence while also rearranging and changing its grammar.

Paraphrasing is easier if you can separate the parts of the sentence and recombine them. Try thinking of the elements in a sentence like playing cards that can be shuffled:

1. Identify the KEY WORDS in a sentence (verbs, negatives, subjects, and direct objects). Do not focus on grammar elements (prepositions, articles, suffixes, etc).

2. Write each keyword on separate pieces of paper.

3. On the back side of each piece of paper, write a synonym for that word.

4. Shuffle your papers with the key words, and lay them out in a random new order with the synonym side facing up.

5. Try to write a sentence using this new order and conveying the same meaning.

6. Shuffle the papers again and make a second paraphrase.

 Here’s an example from the article, “Simplifying Complexity.”

“We’re discovering in nature that simplicity often lies on the other side of complexity.”

1. The key words are “we,” “discovering,” “nature,” “simplicity,” “often,” “lies,” “other side,” “complexity.”

2. Index cards are great for this exercise, but any small pieces of paper will do.

3. Synonyms could be “scientists,” “finding out,” “natural world,” “simple” “frequent” “exists” “opposite side” “complex”

4. New shuffled order, using the synonyms:  natural world frequent finding out scientists simple exist complex opposite

5. A paraphrase based on this new order: “In the natural world, a frequent finding by scientists is that simple things exist as complex things’ opposite side.”  (Notice that the verb “finding out” has been switched to the noun “finding,” so that the sentence is grammatically correct.)

6. Shuffle again, and a second paraphrase: complex simple natural world scientists frequent finding out opposite side exists

“The difference between something that is complex and something that is simple in the natural world, scientists are frequently finding out, is that these are opposite sides of existence.” (Again, notice that the form of “exists” changes to suit the new sentence.)


Shuffling the synonyms and making a new sentence with the words in a new order will challenge your grammar, and will strengthen your ability to think of several ways to express one idea. How many different paraphrases can you make with one sentence? Give us your examples in the comments!

Categories: Listening,Reading,Speaking,TOEFL for Pharmacy,TOEFL for University,TOEFL Preparation,Writing

1 comment so far. Leave a comment.

  1. xaama

    wrote on July 16, 2013 at 6:13 am

    thanks for the example of paraphrasing..!!

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